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Posts tagged ‘questions’


There are three types of research: market, scientific and economic

Epistemology is the study of the origin, nature, methods and limits of knowledge

Knowledge is a description of the state or operation of some aspect


Research process

Phase 1 Clarifying:

Clarifying the issue to be researched, selecting a research method


Phase 2 Data collection:

Collecting, summarising and organising data


Phase 3 Analysis and interpretation:

Relating the evidence to the research question, drawing conclusions, suggestions for further study



Research as a discipline

  • Requires clear thinking, careful observation
  • Must ask researchable questions


Research questions have two properties:

  1. They are limited in scope to certain times, places and conditions. A small part of a larger question
  2. Or they are observable, tangible, countable evidence which is collected is relevant to the question (empirical evidence based on, guided by or using observation and experiment


Researchable questions

  • Questions of right and wrong are not answerable by empirical research. Questions that ask opinion can’t be answered with facts.
  • Questions of aesthetics can’t be researched….


Honesty and accuracy….

To maintain the reliability of the research requires:

  • Objectivity (No emotion)
  • No bias in asking of questions
  • No bias in the selection of the sample population
  • Accurate recording and representation of data
  • Accurate ….


Record keeping

Research must be documented so that:

  • Someone else can see what you did and why you did it
  • The reliability of the process is safeguarded….


Assessing the limitations

  • sample size and representativeness
  • Conclusions drawn from the data must be limited to the research question or objective


Research is a disciplined process for relating theory and data


What is theory?

  • An idea about how something works
  • An idea about what difference will be made by doing or not doing something
  • An idea about how things relate to each other
  • A theory asserts a relationship between concepts
  • We use research to test theories



  • Information collected in the research process
  • Measures of specific thing as they were at a particular time
  • They only have meaning when related to theory



Quantitive – How much, how many, how often

Qualitative – Quality of events being studied, eg. images, feelings, impressions


Phase 1 Unpacking the theory:

  • General statement unpacked to produce a researchable question
  • Narrowing and clarifying the problem:
  • What are the main concepts?
  • What is happening here?
  • What are the issues?
  • Is one thing affecting or producing a change in something else?


Unpacking the problem

List the issues surrounding the problem

  • Use you own experience
  • Review the literature: Consult authorities, book, journals, the internet and previous research


What is a hypothesis

  • All theories begin with a hypothesis
  • It is a statement which asserts a relationship between concepts (cause and effect)


An idea that stands for something

An idea/thought process

Represents a class of things

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