There are three types of research: market, scientific and economic
Epistemology is the study of the origin, nature, methods and limits of knowledge
Knowledge is a description of the state or operation of some aspect
Phase 1 Clarifying:
Clarifying the issue to be researched, selecting a research method
Phase 2 Data collection:
Collecting, summarising and organising data
Phase 3 Analysis and interpretation:
Relating the evidence to the research question, drawing conclusions, suggestions for further study
Research as a discipline
- Requires clear thinking, careful observation
- Must ask researchable questions
Research questions have two properties:
- They are limited in scope to certain times, places and conditions. A small part of a larger question
- Or they are observable, tangible, countable evidence which is collected is relevant to the question (empirical evidence based on, guided by or using observation and experiment
- Questions of right and wrong are not answerable by empirical research. Questions that ask opinion can’t be answered with facts.
- Questions of aesthetics can’t be researched….
Honesty and accuracy….
To maintain the reliability of the research requires:
- Objectivity (No emotion)
- No bias in asking of questions
- No bias in the selection of the sample population
- Accurate recording and representation of data
- Accurate ….
Research must be documented so that:
- Someone else can see what you did and why you did it
- The reliability of the process is safeguarded….
Assessing the limitations
- sample size and representativeness
- Conclusions drawn from the data must be limited to the research question or objective
Research is a disciplined process for relating theory and data
What is theory?
- An idea about how something works
- An idea about what difference will be made by doing or not doing something
- An idea about how things relate to each other
- A theory asserts a relationship between concepts
- We use research to test theories
- Information collected in the research process
- Measures of specific thing as they were at a particular time
- They only have meaning when related to theory
Quantitive – How much, how many, how often
Qualitative – Quality of events being studied, eg. images, feelings, impressions
Phase 1 Unpacking the theory:
- General statement unpacked to produce a researchable question
- Narrowing and clarifying the problem:
- What are the main concepts?
- What is happening here?
- What are the issues?
- Is one thing affecting or producing a change in something else?
Unpacking the problem
List the issues surrounding the problem
- Use you own experience
- Review the literature: Consult authorities, book, journals, the internet and previous research
What is a hypothesis
- All theories begin with a hypothesis
- It is a statement which asserts a relationship between concepts (cause and effect)
An idea that stands for something
An idea/thought process
Represents a class of things