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Archive for the ‘IT Essentials’ Category

cmd stuff

Change drives by typing the drive letter and a : followed by the enter key

backing up:  xcopy f:\*.* /e

cd\ – Takes you directly to the root eg c:

dir /? – Lists the attributes

/ – Is a switch

tree – shows every file and folder in the system

cls – Clear screen

cd – Change directory

md – Make directory

rd – Remove directory

cd.. – Change directory to parent

cd. – Change to the current directory

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Comparing Windows 7, Ubuntu and Mac OS’s

All 3 are very similar at the GUI level, the Ubuntu and Mac layouts are nearly identical in the use of 3 buttons for closing, minimising and maximising.

All 3 have similar applications

The technical differences are ‘invisible’ to the normal user.

But there are major differences, the file systems for example.

Windows runs on NTFS

Linux runs on EFS

Mac runs on FHS

OS and CD burning

OS Distribution (distro’s)

Normally done with .ISO image files

Ubuntu 10.04 has LTS which means long term support, this means almost all the bugs are fixed.

10.10 BETA version still has bugs to be ironed out

  • nero extension is .nrg
  • mac extention is .dmg

*To create ‘live CDs’ (boot cds) you need image burning software,

e.g. nero powerIso (commercial) or Imgburn (open source)

  • Most OS files are hidden so you need to use ‘copy image file’ to copy it to disk so that all of it is transferred

 

  • You can have 4 primary partitions on a computer

OS directory structure

Divided into

  • User created directories
  • Font directory
  • Program files directory
  • Off-line files and folders

*Folders and directories are interchangable terms

Operating systems advanced

There are three main types of operating systems: Microsoft windows, Apple Mac OS, UNIX/Linux.

The operating system is the interface between the user and the computer.

It is possible to have 24 hard drives on a computer

Ide can have 4 connecters on the mother board

Make C: the windows OS and D: stores the data when partitioning

RAID??

Partitions

Primary partitions – Four per drive, can’t subdivide, usually first

Active partitions – Used to boot the computer

Extended partitions – One per drive, subdivided into logical drives

More tech work stuff

  • Prioritise your activities
  • Follow business policy
  • Make call back as close to call back time as possible
  • Keep a list of call back customers and check them off as you complete
  • Avoid giving favourite customers faster service
  • Avoid taking only easy customers
  • Avoid taking another techs. calls anless you have permission

 

Compose yourself between calls

SLA Service level agreements

A contract between aa organisation and service vendor describing the level of service

Contains responsibilities and liabilities of all parties involved

  • Policies
  • Time of call
  • Time in queue
  • Numbers of calls per day
  • How to pass call
  • Promises to customers
  • Follow SLA
  • When to escalate

 

Ethics and legal aspects

Respect customers and their details/data/equipment

Get permission before accessing accounts

Level 1 tech responsabilities

Get and document problems, need detailed documentation

Level 2 tech

More knowledgable

Been working longer

Receives work orders from level 1

Calls back customer for more info.

Communication skills

Communication is as important as computer knowledge in troubleshooting.

You need good communication skills to be in demand for jobs

Establish a good rapport with the customer so they can explain problem details easier

Need to control emotions and reactions from one customer to the next

  • Find details and the customers name, use name
  • Relate to the customer to create a connection
  • Determine what the customer knows about the computer
  • Listen to the customer and let them finish talking
  • Clarify what the customer has said after they have said it
  • Ask follow up questions
  • Use all the information to complete the work order

Know how to:

Putting the customer on hold

Transfer them without dropping the call

Help the customer focus on and communicate their problem

Focus on what you can do to help

Convey an interest to help the customer

Putting a customer on hold

Let them know why and how you are putting them on hold

Ask their permission

Let the customer finish speaking

Thank the customer and explain the transfer details

Customer focus

When the customer stay focused the technician controls the call

Difficult customers

Talkative- Uses the service to socialise

Refocus customer, ask closed questions, avoid off topic conversation

Rude – Complains makes neg. comments, abusive and uncooperative

Listen extra carefully, apoligise for wait time etc. remind them about solving the problem

Angry – Talks loud, tries to overtalk tech. frustrated and upset that they need help

Let them talk the problem out, sympathize with the problem, apoligize for inconvinience, avoid putting them on hold or transferring, focus on solving the problem

Knowledgable – Tries to control the call, convinced they know how to fix the problem

Avoid asking them to check obvious, avoid using step by step solution, tell the customer what you are trying to acheive, if you’re level one transfer to a level two tech.

Inexperienced – Has difficulty describing the problem and following directions to rectify the problem

Use step by step instructions, speak in plain terms, avoid using jargon, avoid sounding belittling, teach them a little about the problem

Network Security

Security

Keeping info in the network

Physical security

theft, corruption, unauthorised access

Data security

Removal of, theft of info, unauthorised access

Internal threat

Employees can cause a malicious or accidental threat

External threat

Outside users can attack in an unstructured or structured way

Viruses, worms and trojan horses

A virus is a code written by an attacker, they may collect info and alter or destroy info

A worm is self-replicating program that uses a network to duplicate its code, at minimum it consumes bandwidth

A trojan horse is technically a worm that pretends to be something useful to get past defences

Anti-virus software picks up, disables and remove viruses where it can before it harms the computer

How they get in

ActiveX controls interactivity on the web

Java  allows applets to run within a browser eg calculator, counter

JavaScript Interacts with HTML in code to allow interactivity in websites eg banner or pop up windows

Denial of service (dos)

Stops users accessing normal services, overloads a resource by sending too many requests sometimes stopping its operation

Ping of death

A series of repeated larger than normal pings intended to crash the receiving computer

E-mail bomb

A large quality of bulk email that overwhelms the email server, prevent people accessing email

Distributed DoS is an attack launched from many computers called zombies.

SPAM

unsolicited emails that can send harmful links or deceptive content

Popups

Windows that automatically open and are designed to capture your attention and lead you to advertising sites

Social engineering

  • Never give out a password
  • Always ask for ID of the unknown person
  • Restrict access of unexpected visitors
  • Escort all visitors through the facility (building)

 

Types of attacks

TCP/IP attacks

DoS attacks

SYN flood attacks

DDoS

Spoofing

Man in the middle attacks

Replay attacks

DNS poisoning

Computer disposal and recycling

Erase all data an d use a third-party to fully erase the data

To fully ensure that data is destroyed you must smash the platters with a hammer

Use a shredding machine for floppies and CDs

Security is strengthened in layers

top to bottom

Wireless security

Data protection

Physical equipment

Local security policy

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