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A  frame of reference used to develop the internets protocols

Consists of layers that perform functions necessary to prepare data for transmission over a network

The OSI model

Used to divide network communications into seven layers. It is used by most networks. A protocol stack is a system that uses a series of layers.


Responsible for network services to applications


Transforms data formats to provide a standard interface for the app layer


Manages and terminates connections


Provides transport and flow control across the network


Logical addressing and domain of routing


Physical addressing  and media access procedures


Define electrical and physical specs for devices

*OSI breaks up the app into three layers and the network interface into two layers*


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