Because all of a computers language is made up of binary in order to type and see the right symbols for each letter a binary code has been assigned to it, there are also binary codes for spaces and punctuation, e.g. $%& etc.
These binary codes are made up of 8 ‘bits’
The first 3 digits tell the computer whether the code is for a letter, space, full stop etc (Or which category the symbol is in)
The second 5 digits tell the computer which symbol in that category that it needs to display.
The letter a in binary is 011 00001
But A is 010 00001
The first 3 digits of these 2 codes is different because capitals and small letters are in different categories. (note: the spaces are put in for visual purposes and shouldn’t be used when writing in binary)
The alphabet is made using the units holder
eg a is the first letter and so represented by a 1
g is the 7th letter so
When you get past the 15th letter it will go up to 5 digits, with the 16th placeholder. (assume there is a 0 in front to make the symbol number into 5 digits)
A good website to convert english language to binary and back again is